These are just a few links I currently have. I will post more in the near future.
The official documentation and laws for immigrating to Argentina can be found at Migraciones (site is In Spanish).
To get your CDI you'll need to visit the AFIP office for your domiciles jurisdication. Then you'l visit that office to declare your domicile.
Argentine consulates are located in most of the major cities across the U.S. To find your nearest consulate simply look for the location nearest to you. I've added website links wherever they were available.